The interaction of Turkish with foreign languages

Turkish, being the language of a very old and rich culture, influenced other languages while it was influenced by them. As it is widely known, there are more than three thousand Turkish words only in Arabic. Nevertheless, the foreign elements in Turkish language are still many more in comparison to the Turkish elements in other languages. Here, in my today’s article, I tried to consolidate those words and affixes in one list and I am sharing them with you under sub categories pertaining to their flow from one language to another.

Turkey in its region
To begin with some examples under country categorizations of words passing to other world languages from Turkish:
Words passing to Bulgarian are: bardak, basma, duman, atmaca, kazma, çekiç…
Words passing to Hungarian are: pite (pide), pasztormany (pastırma-yunaca), joghurt (yoğurt)…
Words passing to Italian are: firmano (ferman), beglierbei (beylerbeyi), giannizzero (yeniçeri)…
Words passing to French are: beghlerbeghi (beylerbeyi), janicheres (yeniçeri), bassa (paşa), bairam (bayram), odalisgue (odalık)…
Words passing to Arabic and other Middle East languages are: abla, açık, bıçak, binbaşı, ekmek, evet (ayva), kuzu, orman, tatlı, vergi, yaprak, yatak, yemek, yemiş…

When it comes to categorizing the ones passing from world languages to the Turkish language country by country:
Words passing from Arabic and Persian languages are: they are rather used as names of people.
Words passing from Venetian and Genoese are: pusula, filika, alabora, acenta kambiyo…
Words passing from French are: tren, vapur, otomobil, kanepe, gardrop, panjur, direktör, sekreter..
Words passing from German are: dekan, doçent…
Words passing from English are: miting, brifing, sprey, tost…

Moreover, to scrutinize the western sourced items in Turkish language one by one, they are better categorized under a variety of affixes (When you check them out word by word as follows, you will easily recognize those words in English):

• Prefixes:
– a (out of): anormal, asimetrik, ametal, apolitik
– anti (contrariness): antidemokratik, antiseptik (preventing microbial infection), antifaşist, antibiyotik (destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria), antifriz (to lower the temperature at which the water freezes)
– de “-de -des -dö” (contrast): deforme, deşarj, demode, deşifre, dezavantaj
– bi (two): bikini, bisiklet, bilanço, bikarbonat
– di (double): diyalog, dioksit (two oxygen atoms), diploma (folded into two)
-ko “kol, kom, kon” (unity, co): koalisyon (union of parties), kompozisyon (formation of compound words from separate words), komisyon (group of people, officially tasked with something), koleksiyon (a set of items gathered together)
– mikro (micro): mikroorganizma (an organism that is too small to be seen by the unaided eye), mikrofilm, mikrofon, mikroskop,
– Pan (unity): pantürkizm, pankart, panislamizm, panslavizm
– Poli (many): poliklinik, poligami, poligon (polygon), polinezya (Polynesia)
– Pre (prior): prehistory (prehistorical), prefabrik, preparat (ready medicine)
– Pro (prior): propaganda, proje, prolog, prototip
– Tele (distant): telefon, telepati

• Suffixes:
– aj (making): puantaj, montaj, avantaj, sabotaj, kamuflaj
– al -el (belonging) : kültürel, pastoral, federal, natüral, endüstriyel
– er (person making it): misyoner, pansiyoner, milyoner, banker, otoriter
-if (relatedness): dekoratif, objektif, sportif,
– ik (correlated): ekonomik, senfonik, anarşik, kritik, teknolojik, otomatik
– ist (profession, belief, habit): idealist, egoist, faşist, baterist, komünist, emeralist, artist
– izm (notion, belief): realizm, feminizm, humanizm
– siyon (making nouns out of verbs): redaksiyon, kanalizasyon, operasyon, provakasyon, transplantasyon, rezervasyon

• Examples of words that became affixes (commonly used in prefix forms):
antre (to enter): antrenman (to get ready for sport), antrenör (the person making you get ready for sport), antrparantez (parenthetical)
fos-foto (light): fotokopi
mono: (single): monoton, monogami, monolog
oto (own): otobiyografi, otokontrol, otokrat, otorite, otomasyon
trans (beyond): transfer, transatlantik, transkripsiyon
psi (soul): psikopat, psişik, psiknaliz
hidro (water): hidroelektrik
biyo (living): biyoloji, biyografi, biyosfer
fobi (scare): hidrofobi, agorafobi

If you know more about those words or affixes which were borrowed from other languages, please do not hesitate to suggest them to us 😉

[Türkçe]

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