About macaronic languages: part two

After writing my previous article on macaronic languages, I just couldn’t help having a second look. Turns out, there were quite a few interesting facts that I thought were worth sharing with you. So, here is what I found:

Greeklish: Although at first you might think that Greeklish is the result of English – Greek code-switching, it normally refers to an informal writing system that uses Latin characters to write Greek words. It was originally created because old operating systems did not have the capacity to use Greek characters. Nowadays, it is used in informal means of online communication such as forums, chats and emails.

Hinglish: Contrary to what the roots of this word may suggest, Hinglish is not just a Hindi – English hybrid. It actually implies the use of English words in many South-Asian languages spoken throughout India including, but not limited to, Punjabi and Hindi. On the other hand, Romanagari, a portmanteau between the words Roman and Devanagari is an informal name for the Romanization of the script used to write Standard Hindi, among other languages.

Engrish: A slang term referring to traits that characterize the mix between English and many East Asian languages. The word instelf makes reference to the common substitution of the R and L phonemes made by the speakers of these languages; and is the generic name for other languages such as:

Chinglish: Also called Chingrish or Sinicized English, it is a pejorative term intended for the mix of English and Chinese languages. In Chinese, it is known as Zhōngshì Yīngyǔ (中式英語), meaning “Chinese-style English.”

Japanglish: The misuse of English by Japanese native speakers as well as the use of anglicisms in everyday Japanese or “wasei-eigo” as it is called in Japanese.

Konglish: Or as it is known in Korean: 한국어식영어 (“Korean-style English”), Konglish is the use of English words in everyday Korean life and is sometimes considered a sublanguage. Simultaneously, this term occasionally refers to common mistakes made by Korean native speakers when communicating in English.

Manglish: Sometimes considered a Creole language, the term Manglish refers to a mix of Malay, Hokkien, Mandarin, Cantonese and Tamil languages, strongly influenced by English words. It is very similar to Singlish and is often referred to as Bahasa Rojak, meaning “mixed language” in Malay.

Thai + English = What?! Depending on the dialect, code-switching between Thai and English can be refered to as Tinglish (Thai + American English), Thaiglish (Thai + British English) or the former term’s synonyms: Thenglish, Thailish or Thainglish.

Still interested? The list goes on and on:

Czech + English = Czenglish

Hebrew + English = Heblish

Tagalog (Philipines) + English = Taglish…

We all know that language has a life of its own and that borrowing words from other groups has been a common practice that lead us to linguistic evolution, but how much do you know about the evolution of the English Language? Have a look at this funny video and get a quick overview. Until next time! 😉


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