Languages are a tool of communication and expression and they are formed from words. If something consists of 2 words or more and delivers a meaning, it is considered to be a sentence in Arabic grammar or what we call in Arabic „Nahw“. Arabic grammar is aimed at the analysis of sentence structure and grammar rules. The word „Nahw“ literally means „like the way of“ as in the way of expressing oneself in Arabic, as this is why the science of grammar emerged in the first place; to teach proper Arabic to non-native speakers after the advent of the Islamic empire.
Sentences in Arabic, like any other language, are formed from words. A word is defined as a single uttering that denotes a meaning, such as Hisham, cat, tree, etc. In Arabic grammar, words are classified into three categories – nouns, verbs and particles. A noun is what defines something that is recognized by the senses or the mind but this recognition is not involved with time – boy, flag, and river, for example. On the other hand, a verb is what denotes an action and is defined by a time frame as well, such as run and play. And finally we have the Arabic particle which has a different meaning than particle in other languages; it simply denotes a word that doesn’t have a meaning on its own, but it always has to be combined with another word – where and to, for example.
Furthermore, sentences themselves in Arabic are classified into verbal sentences which are sentences that start with the verb and the subject following, and nominal sentences which are those that start with the noun or subject and have the others following.
Both verbs and nouns are classified into various sub-categories according to different conditions. Firstly nouns are divided according to gender into masculine and feminine, according to number to singular, dual (for two people) and plural and finally into definite and indefinite articles. Nouns are also categorized according to inflection or case. Arabic nouns are classified into 4 cases – nominative, genitive, and accusative and a fourth case specific to Arabic. Some of them have no inflection states and stick to only one case and this also goes for verbs in addition to other classifications by tense which goes into past, present and imperative. Some verbs are state verbs which are always in one tense, others however are not. Also verbs in Arabic need to have one object or two, but some of them only need one subject.
And that was an overview of Arabic grammar. You will probably find it very different than any other language of Latin origin but it is a very interesting and comprehensive science if you are interested in linguistics. To learn classical Arabic you need to study grammar and even for those whom Arabic is their native language, it is a long and serious study. But possibly you are only interested in conversational or colloquial Arabic which is much simpler and you can just learn it through practicing with a friend or through a simple book or any of the programs and learning tools online.